Really understanding the marketing mix 3/3
Perhaps We Need More P’s?
Despite is usefulness as is (4 P’s) a number of writers have suggested the possible extension of the 4 P’s. For example to include:
5. People: – Particularly in service centre value offerings, people (Employees, Management) as well as the participating consumers often add significant value to the total offering.
6. Process: Procedure, mechanisms and flow of activities by which services are consumed (customer management processes) are an essential element of the marketing strategy.
7. Physical Evidence: The tangible elements of the environment in which the value offer is delivered. It is about the tangible aspects (things you can see and touch) that communicate and deliver the intangible value (the service experience of customers).
While acknowledging that these additional 3 elements can be useful concepts, they are in fact already accommodated in the existing, simpler 4 P’s marketing mix model. There have even been suggestions of a 17 P model and the Jefkins model had 20 elements: (Jefkins F “Modern Marketing” ISBN 0 7121 0853 X).